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“The bar chart below give information about five countries spending habits of shopping on consumer goods in 2012. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.”
The chart compares the spending habits of shoppers in five European countries on six consumer products, namely console games, outdoor game accessories, cosmetics, books, toys and camera. Overall, more money was spent on the latter two than on any other product.
It can be observed that in Britain, the highest amount of money was spent on camera (more than 160 million pounds), while similar amounts were spent on console games and outdoor game accessories. The Austrian spent the second highest amount of money on the first three products while they stood last in the latter three. It is also revealed that Spanish spent more money on toys than on any other product (a bit less than £150 million), but they also paid a lot for camera. Finally, Belgian spent the least overall, having similar spending figures for all 6 products compared in the bar chart.
To sum up, the British were the biggest spenders in all six categories among the nations compared in the bar chart while the lowest spending levels were attributed to the residents of Belgium.
“The chart below gives information about “Istanbul Promo plus” sales in 2007. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant”
The chart shows how Promo Plus in Istanbul fluctuated over a period of 12 months. It is observed that in the first month of 2007, Promo Plus sales stood at 200 million turkish lira and rose slightly to reach about 225 million in February. This was followed by another increase, although much steeper, in March when sales where almost 125 million turkish lira higher than February.
However, this upward trend was suddenly broken and sales plummeted dramatically over the next 4 months to reach a little over 100 million turkish lira in July. August sales showed a significant rise back to January levels as figures nearly doubled, but this was not to last as they dropped again in September to the same level as they were in July. October came with a small increase of about 100 million turkish lira in sales, after which sales figures levelled off and remained relatively static over the last two months of 2007.
Overall, Promo Plus in Istanbul remained relatively unchanged in 2007 as January and December sales were fairly equal. Also, sales were at their highest in March while the weakest sales figures could be observed in July and September.
“The graph below shows the pollution levels in London between 1600 and 2000. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant”
The graph shows pollution levels in London between 1600 and 2000. It measures smoke and sulphur dioxide in micrograms per cubic metre. According to the information, the levels of both pollutants formed a similar pattern during this period, but there were always higher levels of sulphur dioxide than smoke in the atmosphere.
In 1600, pollution levels were low, but over the next hundred years, the levels of sulphur dioxide rose to 700 micrograms per cubic metre, while the levels of smoke rose gradually to about 200 micrograms per cubic metre. Over the next two hundred years the levels of sulphur dioxide continued to increase, although there was some fluctuation in this trend. They reached a peak in 1850. Smoke levels increased a little more sharply during this time and peaked in 1900 at about 500 micrograms. During the 20th century, the levels of both pollutants fell dramatically, though there was a great deal of fluctuation within this fall.
Clearly air pollution was a bigger problem in London in the early 20th century than it is now.
“The charts below show the results of a survey about what people of different age groups say makes them most happy. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.”
There are several similarities between what younger and older people say makes them most happy. However, there are several striking differences.
Firstly, let us look at the similarities. It is noticeable that for both younger and older people, the highest percentage says that achievement at work brings them most happiness: 31% for the younger age group and 32% for the older group. Doing hobbies is also very important for both groups: the second largest percentage of both age groups mention doing hobbies as making them most happy.
Turning now to the differences, many younger people regard having a good appearance as extremely important: 18% of them state this brings them most happiness. This is followed by 15% who state that travel brings them happiness. Neither of these two factors is mentioned by older people. Instead, 20% of older people report that having financial security is most important to their happiness and 14% say they feel most happy when they are with their family.
“The diagram below shows the typical stages of consumer goods manufacturing, including the process by which information is fed back to earlier stages to enable adjustment. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the process shown. You should write at least 150 words. You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.”
Most consumer goods go through a series of stages before they emerge as finished products ready for sale.
Raw materials and manufactured components comprise the initial physical input in the manufacturing process. Once obtained, these are stored for later assembly. But assembly first depends upon the production planning stage, where it is decided how and in what quantities the stored materials will be processed to create sufficient quantities of finished goods. The production planning stage itself follows the requirements of the goods’ design stage that proceeds from extensive research. After assembly, the products are inspected and tested to maintain quality control. Those units that pass the inspection and testing stages are then packaged, dispatched and offered for sale in retail outlets. The level of sales, which is the end point of the manufacturing process, helps determine production planning.
A product’s design is not only the result of product research, but is also influenced by testing and market research. If the testing stage (after assembly and inspection) reveals unacceptable problems in the finished product, then adjustments will have to be made to the product’s design. Similarly, market research, which examines the extent and nature of the demand for products, has the role of guiding product design to suit consumer demands which may change with time. Market research, while influenced by product sales, also serves to foster future sales by devising suitable advertising for the goods.
Thus the reality of consumer goods manufacturing goes well beyond a simple linear production process.