Essay 48: Express your opinion on the importance of studying geography
Geography is a fascinating subject. It reveals all the wonderful changes and activities that have been going on in the world since the beginning of time.
By reading geography we learn not only about our own country but also about countries beyond the seas. We also learn about the mountains, oceans, islands, lakes, volcanoes, the winds and a number of other very interesting things about the world and the ụniverse.
Among the important things that we learn in Geography are the infinite varieties of creatures. plants, birds and land features that exist in the world. We know that there are millions of creatures: small and large, of various kinds in all parts of the earth. We also know that many of the early creatures have now become extinct, while many of them have changed from their original forms. Reading about all these is indeed very interesting.
We also learn about the various types of plants and birds that exist throughout the world. The plants and birds in the cold lands are not the same as those in warmer lands. In the same way, the land forms in the cold regions are different from those in other regions. In the equatorial regions, for example, plant and animal life is luxuriant while in the poles the land is covered with snow, and animal and plant life is less abundant. In equatorial regions abundant rain has produced large rivers and lakes, while in areas where little rain falls there are large deserts without many rivers and lakes.
As the climate and vegetation of one place are not the same as those of another, the habits and activities of the people of different regions are also different. Even their religious convictions and languages are different from those of other parts of the world.
Thus, Geography is a very important subject, and because of its width and variety it is one of the most interesting subjects to read.
- geography (n): địa lý học
- volcano (n): núi lửa
- universe (n): vũ trụ, vạn vật
- luxuriant (adi): phong phú, phồn thịnh, um tùm
- abundant (adj): nhiều, phong phú, dồi dào
- vegetation (n) : thưc vật, cây cối, thảm thực vật .
- conviction (n): sự nhận thức, thấy tội lỗi
Essay 49: The importance of rivers
Rivers have been very useful to men in all parts of the earth since very early times. They provide water to slake the thirst of men, to fertilize their lands and to provide a means of communication for the goods that they transport from place to place.
Early civilization began on the banks of the great rivers of the world, such as the Nile and the Indus. These rivers provided the water, the people on their banks needed for all their purposes. As people in those early days did not have the transport facilities that we have today . They had to live close to the rivers to transport their goods to places along the rivers and to draw the water that they needed.
Rivers not only provided water for their domestic needs and agricultural purposes but also enabled the people to move from place to place along their banks. Boats or rafts were used to travel from one end of a river to another. In the same way, goods were also transported. With the transport of good and the contacts of people between different parts of the same river there were also many cultural exchanges. Thus, rivers helped to spread civilization.
It is true, however, that rivers have also caused much misery and unhappiness to millions of people throughout history. They have caused floods and destroyed lives and property in all parts of the earth. For example, the Hwang Ho in China has been described as the “sorrow of China” because of the destruction that it had caused in the past.
But it should be realised that floods occur once in several years. Therefore, the damage that rivers cause is not so great as the benefits that they confer on humanity. Today,rivers continue to be used not only as a source of water for drinking and fertilizing the lands or as a means of transport but also as a source of electricity which has revolutionized society. The importance of rivers is therefore not difficult to appreciate.
- slake the thirst (v): làm giảm cơn khát, đỡ khát
- civilization (n): nền văn minh
- bank (n): bờ sông
- facilities (n): điều kiện dễ dàng, thuận lợi, tiện nghi
- domestic (adj): trong nhà, trong gia đình
- raft ( n ): bè, mảng, bè gỗ
- revolutionize (v): cách mạng hoá
- appreciate (v): đánh giá đúng, đánh giá cao, thưởng thức
Essay 50: The value of books
Deep in the heart of every good book lies the distilled wisdom of centuries. To read it is to become wiser.
Books are written for the benefit and pleasure of all those who like to read them. But they are of various types. There are books for children, as well as for adults. Some books are written for the specialists, some are written for students in the schools and universities, and many are written just for the pleasures of the mind. Indeed, the variety of books is infinite.
One of the reasons for the existence of such a wide variety of books is that the field of knowledge is very extensive. Even to grasp a small part of it one has to read several books for many years. Another reason is that different people have different likes and dislikes. The book that one likes to read, the other may not like. To meet these broad and varying needs of people for information, knowledge, recreation and aesthetic enjoyment, more and more books are being written every year.
Those who aim to specialize in a certain branch of knowledge concentrate more on the books that provide information on their particular field of study. In the libraries and book shops they look mainly for such books. But those who have no particular interest in any subject read and buy all types of books. Sometimes they buy books intended for the specialist, sometimes they buy those written for children. and sometimes if they are preparing for some examination, they buy books which give some information on their examination subjects.
Almost every book extends the knowledge of the reader and develops his intellect as well. Even if the reader does not learn any new facts from the book, he may at least learn a few new words, expressions or ideas. In fact, certain books are written mainly to acquaint the reader with the beauty of language and ideas. They do not deal with facts or actual human experiences. Books of this type provide great pleasure to the mind, and almost everyone who loves reading buys a few of such books. Books have also helped to promote better understanding among the peoples of the world. By reading books. The people of one country have come to know about the achievements of those in other countries.
Thus, books could be regarded as one of the channels of communication among men. Indeed, without books man would not have made so much progress as he has made today. By applying the knowledge that he has gained from books to practical purposes, he has made the world a pleasant place to live in. Civilization therefore owes a great debt to these inanimate things called books.
- distil (v): đúc kết, chưng cất
- specialist (n): chuyên gia, chuyên viên
- varying (adj): hay thay đổi, hay biến đổi, không ổn định
- aesthetic (adj): (thuộc) mỹ học, thẩm mỹ
- field (n): lĩnh vực, phạm vi
- intellect (n): trí tuệ
- at least : ít nhất, tối thiểu
- promote (v): thúc đẩy, khích 1ệ, xúc tiến
- achievement (n): thành tích, thành tựu
- channel (n): kênh, nguồn (thông tin, tin tức…)
- inanimate (adj): vô tri, vô giác
Essay 51: Do you think that physical education is important?
The value of physical education has been realized since the earliest times of human existence. The Greeks and the Romans considered it indispensable to the development of a good personality and character.
Today in all the schools and universities in the world, a great deal emphasis is being placed on physical education as a means of producing citizens of good character and personality.
Physical education develops the muscles of the body scientifically and increases muscular activity and physical strength. All this makes the body active and efficient. It is now also realized that there is a close connection between the body and the mind. Therefore, if the body is active, the mind too is active. Proof of this can be easily found among children. Children who are inactive physically are usually also mentally lazy. An active and efficient body is a healthy body. When the body is healthy, the mind too is and therefore happy. Thus, physical education contributes greatly to the health and happiness of an individual such an individual could do a great deal for the good of society.
Physical education can also contribute to the strength of a nation. If the youths of a country receive proper physical education, they can build up a strong country to protect itself from foreign attacks or invasions.
Further, physical education provides opportunities for contacts with people of other lands. Athletes of all countries meet at various countries at various times to compete with one another and thus promote common understanding among countries for the benefit of one another.
It is therefore, not without reason that physical education has been a part and parcel of academic pursuit today. I do therefore agree that physical education is important to all people.
- physical (adj): (thuộc) thể chất
- indispensable (adj): tuyệt đối cần thiết
- emphasis (n): sự nhấn mạnh, tầm quan trọng
- muscle (n): bắp thịt, cơ
- proof (n): chứng cứ, bằng chứng
- inactive (adj): không hoạt động, thiếu hoạt động
- individual (adj): cá nhân
- invasion (n): sự xâm lược
- opportunity (adj): cơ hội, thời cơ
- athlete (n): vận động viên; lực sĩ
- part and parcel : thành phần không thể thiếu
- pursuit (n): sự theo đuổi nghề nghiệp hoặc hoạt động
Essay 52: The importance of reading newspapers
As the name suggests newspapers are a source of news and information. In several respects they are also a medium of communication among the peoples of the world.
Today there are hundreds of newspapers all over the world. Everywhere there is a keen desire to learn more and more about the affairs of the world. This is partly the result of the spread of education which sharpens one’s curiosity to learn about distant lands.
As a source of news: the newspaper is almost indispensable to those whose thirst for knowledge is insatiable. They contain news on events in distant corners of the earth. Information about such events arrives almost immediately. As a result. people everywhere are informed about the most important events in the world verỵ quickly and almost all the same time. For example, if a war breaks out in one part of the world today , the people in the other parts will certainly come to know about it tomorrow. As a result, all the countries of the world are able to do something quickly to help those who have suffered because of the war or to persuade the countries at war to cease fighting.
Newspapers also play an important part in keeping the peoples of the world informed about the troubles that might arise in the future, if nothing is done to prevent them from happening. For example, if a dispute arises between two countries for any reason: the newspapers can keep the peoples of the world informed about what might happen if nothing is done to persuade the two countries to resolve their differences peacefully. In this way many wars have been avoided because of the intervention of some countries in the disputes of many countries which were given prominences in newspapers.
When all this is considered, we feel that there is some silent communication among countries through the medium of newspapers for the common benefit of the countries of the world.
Further, constant reading of newspapers improves one’s outlook on life and makes one a more reasonable person. The importance of the newspaper is therefore obvious.
- respect (n): phương diện, khía cạnh
- medium (n): phương tiện
- keen (adj): mãnh liệt, thiết tha, nhiệt tình
- insatiable (adj): không thể thoả mãn được
- cease (v): dừng, ngừng, ngớt, tạnh
- arise (v): xuất hiện, nảy sinh ra, xảy ra
- intervention (n): sự can thiệp, sự xen vào
- prominence(n): sự nổi bật, sự đáng chú ý
Essay 53: Discuss the part played by science in the promotion of public health during the last hundreds years
One of the most striking features of the present century is the progress of science and its effects on almost every aspect of social life. Building on the foundations laid by their precedessors the scientists of today are carrying their investigation into ever widening fields of knowledge.
The contribution of science to the promotion of public health in the last hundred years has indeed been tremendous. The unceasing work and experiments of scientists during this time have led to numerous discoveries and removed many misconceptions that many people had before, regarding health illness. The causes of many of the diseases have become generally known. Indeed, many of the facts relating to public health, which are now regarded as common knowledge, were unknown even to the doctors of those days. The fact that germs were the cause of most of the common diseases was not realised by doctors of high repute in the not very distant past. Today, however, even a pupil of a primary school has some knowledge of the destruction that germs can cause. The discovery of germs has indeed revolutionised all medical concepts of disease and illness: everywhere people have come to realise the importance of cleanliness in the prevention of disease.
The researchers or scientists of all countries have also revealed other secrets. It is now known that illness and diseases can be caused by other living creatures also, such as flies, insects and even birds, animals and human beings. Their discoveries have contributed to the progress of medical science. Today, people in all parts of the world are doing their utmost to destroy the creatures that carry diseases. At the same time, however, scientists have also discovered that certain animals and creatures could provide some cure for a variety of diseases that are dangerous to human beings. Even the curative value of certain plants has been discovered.
An important result of the discoveries of scientists has been that, they have also found the cure of almost every disease. It is a practice of the scientists to work for the discovery of a cure as soon as they have discovered the causes of a certain disease. This service of the scientists has promoted the welfare of the human race. In this field of research, scientists make no distinction between races. Whatever they discover is used for the advantage of men everywhere. The progress of humanity is their main aim.
The work of medical scientists also reduced pain to great extent. In the past operations were performed on individuals in a very crude manner. Amputation was a very painful affair. Today, however. the whole body of a man could be cut open without his feeling any pain by the use of chloroform. In this way science has relieved the misery of men tremendously.
Another very important discovery has been that, water, without which life cannot exist, sometimes contains the elements of destruction as well. impure water could spread disease and death at tremendous speed. This knowledge has led people in all parts of the world to use only pure water tor all domestic and other purposes. Water is considered so important a factor in public health that all the governments of the world control its use for drinking purposes. All these discoveries have indeed promoted public health during the last hundred years.
- foundation(n): sự thành lập, sự sáng lập
- precedessor (n): người đi trước, người tiền nhiệm
- unceasing (adj): liên tục, không ngừng, không mệt mỏi
- misconception (n): quan niệm sai lầm
- germ(n): vi trùng, mầm bệnh
- crude (adj): thô thiển, thô bạo
- amputation (n): thủ thuật cắt cụt
- chloroform (n): cloroform – một loại hóa chất gây mê
- factor (n): nhân tố
Essay 54: Water is important for all living things. Do you agree or disagree? Give your reasons.
Without water no living thing on the earth could survive. We need water To quench our thirst. water our lands to grow crops or to keep the animals and fowls in our homes alive. Even the plants and insects in all parts in the world need water to live.
We also need water to produce electricity and to carry our goods or trade. Electricity is very important for our comforts today. Almost everything that we use in our homes today depends on the use of electricity. In the same way, water also helps to transport many or the goods that we need for our homes. Ships, rafts and boats carry many things from distant lands and help to exchange goods between one country and another. Transport by water is easier and cheaper than by air or land.
But water has also caused much sorrow and hardship in all parts of the world floods and heavy rains have destroyed crops, lives and property through the centuries and caused much sorrow everywhere.
Yet, water is so important that all living things, including the tiniest of creatures, will continue to struggle to get it whenever or wherever they can.
- quench (v): làm hết khát
- fowl (n): chim, gà
Essay 55: The value of education
Briefly, education means the acquisition of knowledge and abilities, and the development of one’s character and mental powers by systematic training and instruction. Education is therefore of great value to any person.
It has been realized that a person without education is deprived of many benefits. He not only lacks the knowledge of human affairs but also the ability to appreciate the value of many of the things that concern his own welfare. Thus, he is not able to contribute his full share to the progress of society and the world. Neither is he able to develop his personality to the fullest extent.
One of the greatest benefits of education is that it helps a person to understand the position that he occupies in society. It helps him to speak and conduct himself with confidence and dignity which earn him the respect and admiration of others. Thus, he occupies an important position in society, and people look up to him as their leader.
Another benefit of education today is that it helps one to secure lucrative employment. In the world of today, almost every kind of employment requires some understanding of a few basic principles of science, mathematics, economics, engineering, accountancy or some other subjects on the part of the worker. Thus, the better education a person has better prospects he has of securing attractive positions in the various professions.
Finally, education makes a person sympathetic and considerate towards others. He is helpful to those who need his advice and guidance, and is not critical of those who commit offences or mistakes out of ignorance or necessity. Further, he does not like to hurt the feelings of others. Even if he is extremely provoked, he tries to express his displeasure or anger in words which give the slightest offence to others and yet express his outraged feelings adequately.
As a result of all these qualities that a person acquires through education, he becomes a very pleasant person to associate with. He thus lives a fuller life in socially.
- briefly(adv): một cách vắn tắt, ngắn gọn
- acquisition (n): sự giành được, sự thu được
- deprive (v): lấy đi, tước đi
- dignity ( n ): phẩm giá, nhân cách, lòng tự trọng
- lucrative (adi): có lợi, sinh lợi
- accountancy (n): nghề kế toán
- prospects (n. plu.): khả năng thành công, triển vọng
- offence (n): sự phạm tội
- ignorance(n): ngu dốt
- provoke (v): khiêu khích, chọc tức
- adequately (adv): tương xứng, thích đáng, thoả đáng
- associate (v): kết giao, giao thiệp
Essay 56: An interesting story I have heard
An interesting story that I have heard is about a deserted house in a remote village somewhere in India.
The house had not been occupied for several years after the death of its owner. For some reason no one liked or cared for the owner. Therefore, when he died, he was not buried. His dead body remained in his bed until it was reduced to its skeleton.
One evening a traveller was passing by this house when it suddenly began to rain heavily. Looking for shelter , he ran into this house, where, to his surprise and terror, he saw a human skeleton. But the rain had not stopped and it was rapidly growing dark. He has therefore no choice but to sit there, in the hope that somebody like him might come in to keep him company. But no one came. It was now too dark to see anything outside. He therefore decided to spend the night in that dark and lonely house. The rain continued to fall unabated. The wind was strong and there was much lightning. The traveller lay on the floor but he could not sleep with the skeleton inside the house. After several hours, there was a sudden very cold crawling over his body. he was now too frightened to move. After a while, he heard another strange cry. Just at that moment, a lightning flashed across the sky when he saw a large animal jump out of the house through a window which had been open. He now began to pray for his safety.
While he was in this position, some robbers happened to take shelter in the verandah of the house. They began to talk and laugh loudly. Hearing the voices, the traveller began to ask some questions from inside to make sure that there were some people outside. But the robbers were now frightened. They thought that it was the voice of ghost. They ran away as fast as they could. when morning came. The traveller rushed out of the house and never returned to that part of the country.
- skeleton (n): bộ xương
- shelter (n): chỗ nương tựa, chỗ ẩn náu
- keep s.b company : có ai bên cạnh làm bầu bạn
- unabated (adj): không giảm sút, không yếu đi
- crawl (n): làm sởn gai ốc
- robber (n): kẻ cướp; kẻ trộm
- verandah (n): hiên, hè, hành lang
Essay 57: My most favorite subject
My most favourite subject is English which is today one of the most important languages in the world. It is spoken and understood in all parts of the earth.
English has become an international language for a variety of reasons. One of the most important of them is that the English people have been well-known for their knowledge of science medicine, engineering, government and all other matters that are useful for the progress of the human race. It is because of the scientists of England that the motor- engine has become the most important machine in the world today. In the same way, English scholar have studied the past and discovered many things of great value to the peoples of the world. Some of the things which were useful to men in the early days were later forgotten by others. Such things are now again being used, owing to the work of English scholars.
The insatiable thirst for knowledge of the English scholars has contributed to the progress of man in almost all fields of his activity. Thousands of books have been written by such scholars on almost every subject that one can think of. Thus, people whose native tongue is not English have learnt English with great interest as a means of acquiring knowledge of all human affairs.
As a result or this interest English is used almost everywhere in the world. It is used in all the important meetings and conferences and debates such as in United Nation. It is also used in all the leading universities in the world and in international trade and commerce. As it is used so widely, English has indeed become a very rich language. People of all the countries of the world have contributed new ideas and thoughts to this language.
Thus, more and more new words are being coined to make this language more and more useful tor the communication of ideas and information among the peoples of the world. It is for all these reasons that I like to study the English language.
- scholar (n): học giả
- insatiable thirst : sự khát khao không thể thỏa mãn
- native tongue (n): tiếng mẹ đẻ
- debate (n): cuộc tranh luận, cuộc thảo luận, cuộc tranh cãi
- commerce (n): thương mại, thương nghiệp
Essay 58: Describe an unpleasant dream you have had
Everyone dreams. Some dreams are pleasant and some are not. One of the most unpleasant dreams that I have had concerns a wild creature which used to visit a village every night in search of blood and flesh.
It is difficult for me to give a proper description of the creature. It was tall, black and hairy. Its legs and hands resembled those of a man, but its face was like that of a leopard. It walked like a man but it could also run like an animal when it wished. Its home was not on land but in the sea. However, its thirst for blood was insatiable. Every night when all the people in the village that it used to visit went to bed, it would come out of the sea and quietly go into the village. It would look for a man who might be outside. Such was its luck that it found at least one man every night. Its method of attack was simple. As soon as it saw a man, it would put its powerful hands round his neck and strangle him. At the same time it would sink its teeth into the flesh and drink his blood. This unfortunate man would have no time to shout, for death came swiftly.
In this way, the creature had killed a lot of people, but no one could explain their disappearance. As the foot prints of the creature were similar to those of a tall and big man, no one could distinguish between the foot prints of the creature and those of a man. Then, one night, I happened to be in the village. The creature, however, did not see me when it came. I was at first frightened. but when I saw it had caught and killed a man, 1 felt brave. I knew that it would now not bother to kill me. I therefore decided to follow the creature.
Not suspecting that it was being followed, the creature stopped at a place and began to eat the man. When it was satisfied, it picked up the remains of the man and slowly walked back into the sea which was only a short distance from the village. All the while I moved very cautiously. Then, I ran back to the village and told the people what had happened. On the next day, the villagers waited near the sea with all the weapons that they had. The creature came out for its usual meals, but this was an unfortunate day for the creature. As soon as it was on the land, the villagers surrounded it and killed it. Its cries of pain and anger before it died were such that I suddenly woke up to find that I was only dreaming. I felt greatly relieved.
- concern (v): liên quan đến, dính líu tới
- description (n): sự diễn tả, sự miêu tả
- resemble (v): giống với, tương tự
- leopard (n): con báo
- strangle (v): bóp nghẹt
- swiftly (adv): nhanh; nhanh chóng, ngay lập tức
- distinguish (v): phân biệt
- bother (v): áy náy, băn khoăn, lo ngại
- cautiously (adv): cẩn thẩn, thận trọng
- surround (v): vây quanh, bao quanh
Essay 59: Describe your last holiday
During my last school holidays. I spent a few days at my cousin’s house at Morib, a well-known sea resort. I shall never forget that visit.
On the day I arrived at Morib, my cousin told me that he would do to make my stay there a very interesting one. He said that he would first make a raft to use it in the sea. Then he would buy fishing net to catch some fish in the shallow waters near the coast. When I heard all this, I was very delighted because it was for these reasons that I had decided to visit my cousin. We then walked up to the beach which is near his house.
While we were there, sometime in the evening, the sea looked extremely beautiful. I saw the islands and hills in the distance, the birds in the air, and a few boys and girls playing on the beach. I also saw some fishermen coming out of the water with their catch. All this was indeed very interesting to look at.
On the next day, my cousin and I collected some tree trunks from the forest nearby. As my cousin’s house is close to the sea, we decided to make the raft on the beach itself. It took us almost the whole morning to make the raft. We then had our lunch and went to Banting, the nearest town, to buy fishing net. After that we returned to my cousin’s house.
In the evening we put the ran on the sea. The water was still high, but the raft floated quite well. My cousin and I sat on it and began to row it by using the oars that we had made ourselves. We felt very happy indeed and continued to row it. We remained on it for a long time, but as it was already getting dark we did not go far. We returned to the shore and tied the raft to a tree.
On the next day, we went out to catch some crabs and fish. We used the net that we had bought and caught a lot of fish. Then, we had our lunch and went out again on the ran. we continued to row it as far as we could. It was really a pleasure to be away from the shore. The sea was calm and we could row with ease. My cousin told me many interesting things about Morib. We then returned to the shore.
In this way, I spent my holidays happily at Morib, a place I shall never forget.
- sea resort (n): nơi nghỉ mát ở bờ biển
- raft (n): cái bè, cái mảng
- delighted (adj): hào hứng, hài lòng
- extremely (adv): tột cùng, cực độ, cực kì
- trunk (n): thân cày
- row (v): chèo thuyền
- oar (n): mái chèo
- remain (v): ở lại
- to get dark : (trời) tối dần
- tie (v): buộc, cột, tróí
- crab (n): con cua
- ease (n): sự dễ dàng
Essay 60: Journalism as a career
Almost everyone who can read and write sometimes feels the urge to write on some favourite topic. But some people love writing so much that they spend much of their time in writing something on various subjects for the sheer pleasure of writing. Such people usually become skillful writers; and if the ability to write with ease and facility was enough to achieve success in the field of journalism, many people would make journalism their career.
In countries like England and Japan, where there are hundreds of newspapers and journals, journalism is an attractive profession. It is a very good source or income to many. But in Malaysia there are so few newspapers and journals that journalism offers almost no prospect of success. Even in England and Japan, however, many people have failed to achieve any success in this field. To be successful in journalism, one must have many other qualities, besides the ability to write effectively. One of the most important qualities is the ability to judge what the average reader likes or dislikes. If one writes for a political journal, one should have a fair knowledge of what the readers of that journal expect from it. If one writes for a women’s journal, one should know almost instinctively what its readers prefer. Accordingly, the journalist should gather information from all possible sources for his articles and stories for publication. He may even have to distort or omit certain facts and information, which in his judgement may appear unpleasant to his readers. Further, if certain unpleasant facts have to be revealed to his readers, he has to employ words with such skill that his readers will take almost no offence. All these require great intellectual qualities.
Besides, to collect information, the journalist has to travel extensively and meet many people, far and near. As too much travelling involve great physical activity, the journalist has to pay sufficient attention to his health to keep himself strong. He has also to cultivate pleasing habits to meet all sorts of people. He must also he prepared to work under very unpleasant circumstances. For example, if he is working for a popular newspaper, he may have to be at the scene or a battle and risk his life to send his report to his newspaper office. All this involves great personal sacrifice.
Finally, a good journalist should have a good grasp of the constitutional rights of the citizens of his country and the policies of his government. He should also know the laws of libel and slander. Ignorance of any or these may lead him to make unfair criticisms and disclosures which may cause serious troubles in the country. Thus, success in journalism is not easy to attain, and only a few people make it their career.
- facility (n): khả năng học hoăc làm việc một cách dễ dàng
- achieve (v): đạt được, giành được
- journalism (n): nghề làm báo, viết báo
- judge ( v ): xét đoán, phán đoán, đánh giá
- instinctively (adv): theo bản năng, do bản năng
- distort (n): bóp méo, xuyên tạc
- sufficient (adj): đầy đủ
- circumstance (n) : hoàn cảnh, trường hợp
- constitutional (adj) : thuộc hiến pháp, theo hiến pháp
- libel (n) : lời phỉ báng, tội phỉ báng
- slander (n): sự vu khống. sự vu cáo
- disclosure (n) : sự vạch trần, sự phơi bày
Essay 61: Beauty in nature
Beauty is hard to define but easy to recognise. In nature beauty may be discerned in all things and places, even in the most unexpected regions of the earth. There is beauty in the infinite variety of flowers, birds, animals and plants, many of which are vividly colourful.
There is beauty in mountains, valleys and hills, and in the skies. Thus, beauty can be found in all the creations of God. Then hunter who scans the forests for his quarry is often fascinated by the beauty that he finds in objects, which conceal beautiful flowers from human sight, suddenly reveal their secrets to him when he stumbles over them. The fisherman who turns to the sea for his livelihood is fascinated by the beauty of the multitudinous creatures that swarm in the seas. Many of these creatures are found even on the shore. But the oceans often conceal the beauty that lies below their surface, and to catch a glimpse of the beauty of the world below the sea, hundreds of divers everywhere explore the bottoms of the oceans, even at the risk of losing their lives in the unknown regions of the world below.
Even the farmer and the traveller appreciate the beauty that is found in nature. The farmer finds beauty in the variety of the plants that he grows. The traveller is impressed with the beauty of distant hills and mountains, and the beauty of meadering rivers in large valleys. He is also appreciative of the beauty of the night. As he travel in the moon-light, he looks at the landscape and is lost in admiration of it.
The beauty in nature is also appreciated by others. Almost every one delights to see the rushing streams and the numerous birds and animals that may be found in every part of the earth, for these are part of the ornaments of nature. Even the tiniest of creatures has a beauty of its own. In search of this beauty in nature, men in all parts of the world are travelling great distances and spending a great deal of money, even in some cases, even their life savings. It is this appreciation of natural beauty that impels men to visit distant lands which have a beauty of their own. Men have also visited the islands that are spread throughout the world in search of the natural beauty. Many have seen visited the cold deserts in the Artics as well as the hot deserts where few plants grow, in search of the beauty that may be found in these regions, despite the lack of vegetation and animals life. The deserts are indeed the home of many beautiful plants and animals which find sufficient refuge in these pans, and many of the birds too, here are remarkable for their beauty.
But the person who is most appreciative of natural beauty is the poet who finds music and beauty even in the movement of the clouds and winds. His deep appreciation of the beauty that he finds around him impels him to give utterance to it in the most expressive language, which is itself often of imperishable beauty.
- discern (v): nhận thức, thấy rõ
- God (n): chúa trời, thượng đế
- scan (v): xem tỉ mỉ, kiểm tra cẩn thận
- quarry (n): con mồi
- conceal (v): giấu giếm, che đậy
- reveal (v): bộc lộ, biểu lộ, tiết lộ
- stumble (v): vấp, trượt chân
- multitudinous (adj): rất nhiều, vô số kể
- glimpse (n): cái nhìn thoáng qua
- meander (v): ngoằn ngoèo, quanh co, khúc khuỷu
- ornament (n): đồ trang hoàng, đồ trang trí
- impel (v): thúc ép, bắt buộc
- refuge (n): nơi trốn tránh, nơi ẩn náu, nơi trú ấn
- remarkable (adj): đáng chú ý, đáng để ý
- utterance (n): sự phát biểu, sự bày tỏ
- imperishable (adj): bất hủ, bất tử, bất diệt
Essay 62: Do you agree that the study of Mathematics is essential to the progress of the human race?
Though the study of Mathematics had occupied the attention of Egyptian and Greek scholars centuries ago, yet it was only after the advent of the Industrial Revolution that the importance of the subject was fully realised by scholars and educationists everywhere. Today, Mathematics is one of the most important subjects in all the schools and universities of the world.
Before the Industrial Revolution, men lived very simple lives. Agriculture, hunting and fishing were then their main sources of livelihood. It did not occur to them that their lives could be made more comfortable if they only exercised their mental faculties a little more and organised a system of knowledge, which we now call the Science, and applied it to practical purposes. Thus, they turned to nature for sustenance, and were satisfied with what they could acquire from nature with their skills. This simple mode of existence was, however, disturbed by the inventions of a few men, sometime in the eighteenth century, which caused people everywhere to think of new ways of improving their conditions of living. The inventions revealed new sources of comfort, and power for the production of goods. Thus, the Industrial Revolution began. More and more machines were invented for the rapid production of goods, and the study of Mathematics began to receive great encouragement, for it was realised that machines function on mathematical principles.
The intensive study of Mathematics revealed its potentialities. It was soon applied not only to invent new machinery but also to explain abstruse subjects such as Physics, Logic and many others. In fact, Mathematics is now used to teach and explain almost every important subject in schools and universities. Even the construction of buildings and bridges requires a deep knowledge of Mathematics.
The study of Mathematics has also helped to increase the mental powers of men. They are not only able to think more clearly than they could before but are also able to understand and explain many of the things which they could not understand earlier.
Sometimes, however, Mathematical principles have been applied for tragic consequences. In battles and wars, bombs and cannon-balls have been released with remarkable accuracy to destroy the enemy. This fact reveals how knowledge of Mathematics could be used to hinder human progress. But such a situation develops only when men have lost their patience and their capacity for compromise and fortunately the leaders of the world today are trying their utmost to remove the causes for war.
In general, however, men have a natural impulse to live in peace and harmony with others, and almost every invention is aimed at promoting the welfare of the peoples of the world. Thus, the human race has benefited from the efforts of those who have made the fullest use of Mathematical principles for all their inventions. I therefore agree that the study of Mathematics is essential to the progress of the human race.
- the mental faculties: năng lực, trí tuệ
- sustenance (n): chất bố, sự bổ dưỡng
- encouragement (n): niềm khích lệ, niềm cổ vũ, niềm động viên
- intensive (adj): chuyên sâu, cao độ, mạnh mẽ, sâu sắc, tập trung
- potentiality (n): tiềm năng, tiềm lực
- abstruse (adj): khó hiểu, thâm thuý, sâu sắc
- consequence (n): hậu quả, kết quả
- cannon-ball (n): đạn trái phá
- impulse (n): sự thúc đẩy, sự thôi thúc
- welfare (n): hạnh phúc, sự thịnh vượng
Essay 63: What contributions can writers make to the promtion of goodwill among the people of a country?
Since remote antiquity writers in every country have exerted a profound influence on the minds of the people. The writings or political philosophers, like Rousseau and Voltaire, have even caused revolutions and diverted the course of history. Such is the power of writers who express their ideas and views with lucidity and cogency. Most writers who dwell upon the affairs of their countries are deeply conscious of their responsibility towards their countries and compatriots. This consciousness not only impels them to avoid issues which tend to divide the people but also to express their views on delicate issues in the most temperate language. Their main aim is to promote goodwill among the people of the country, and this they try to achieve in various ways.
In a country dominated by people of the same race and language, writers can promote goodwill among its people by clarifying political and economic issues which the people understand only vaguely. If the people are divided by ideological differences or by differences of economic status, writers can exercise their influence to remove the resentment and prejudices among the people. Even those who write on social problems can emphasise the issues that tend to unite the people. They can also suggest ways and means of removing the causes of resentment and frustration that exist among the people. As the written word is more effective than the spoken word, people tend to accept the views of writers more readily than those expressed verbally by various people.
But it is in countries in which people of various races reside that writers can make the greatest contribution to the promotion of goodwill among the people. In a country like Malaya, for example, writers can concentrate on the issues that tend to unite the people. They should not be too critical of the attitudes of one race to gratify the emotions of another race. If they do so, they will incite racial discord and even violence which may affect the whole country adversely. If short speeches to a small group of people can cause riots and racial conflicts in all parts of the country, writers can do greater harm, for the written word circulates more extensively for a longer period.
This power of the written word, however, could be used by writers for the benefit of the whole nation. By giving prominence to the social aspects of life that affect the people as human beings and as individuals of a particular race, writers can help in the development of a common outlook among the people. They could also help in making the people realise the benefits in peace and harmony. A study of the history of many countries reveals how the ways and habits of its people are influenced by the pen of distinguished writers. Even the leaders of the country are often guided by the opinions of noted writers.
Indeed, in times of great discontent in a country, writers advise the people to exercise patience and moderation in expressing their grievance. There are many examples of how writers in various countries have been able to remove feelings of hatred among the people. The newspaper, for example, which is the product of the combined effort of many writers, is able to exert a restraining influence on people who are easily provoked. This is the best example of what writers could do to promote goodwill among the people of a country.
- antiquity (n): thời xưa
- divert (v) : làm đổi hướng
- lucidity (n): sự rõ ràng, minh bạch
- cogency (v): sự vững chắc, sức thuyết phục
- dwell upon (v): chuyên chú vào
- conscious (adj): có ý thức, biết rõ
- compatriot (n): đồng bào
- delicate (adj): tinh vi, tinh tế, tế nhị
- dominate (v): chiếm ưu thế, chi phối, thống trị
- clarify (v): làm cho dễ hiểu
- vaguely (adv): mơ hồ, ngờ ngợ
- ideological (adj): thuộc hệ tư tưởng
- prejudice (n): sự thành kiến, định kiến, thiên kiến
- frustration (n): tâm trạng thất vọng, vỡ mộng
- verbally (adv): bằng lời nói
- adversely (adv): bất lợi
- circulate (v): lưu truyền, truyền bá
- discontent (n): sự bất mãn, sự bất bình
- grievance (n): lời phàn nàn, lời kêu ca, lời than phiền, nỗi bất bình
Essay 64: Which language do you think has made the greatest contribution to the promotion of better understanding among the peoples of the world?
The human race is divided by a multiplicity of languages, many of which have come to play an important part in the affairs of the world. A little reflection reveals that the importance of a language is associated mainly with the ideas and knowledge it contains. The more ideas a language can convey to the peoples of the world, the more it will be used by people everywhere. Thus, the language that is used most extensively is the language that makes the greatest contribution to human progress and mutual understanding between peoples.
It cannot be denied that today the most widely used language is the English language. There are few countries in which this language is not understood or used. Even the countries which preached hatred for everything English, including the English language, during their struggle for independence from British rule such as India, found it difficult to dispense with this language after they became independent. Therefore, they not only continued to use English in all spheres of public activity but also began to encourage the use and study of the English language as means of achieving national progress and unity. These efforts on the part of the various countries of the world convey an idea of the importance of the English language.
It would be instructive, however to consider the reason for the extensive use of the English language. One of the reasons is that several countries in the world have been occupied mainly by immigrants from England such as the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. It is therefore not surprising that the people of such countries have continued to use the English language, though they have severed their political connexions with their mother country and acquired independent status, for one cannot discard one’s language easily. Another reason is that, in the course or history, a large number of countries throughout the world came directly under British rule, where English was made the main language for administrative, commercial and all other purposes.
As the leading colonial power in the world, England has indeed exerted a profound influence on the affairs of the world, though her colonial possessions are rapidly becoming independent one after the other. Concomitantly, the English language too has come to play a leading role in international communication. Thus, many people whose native language is not English have studied English and become more conversation with English than with their own languages. This is especially true with the leaders of the people to whom English is a foreign language. As a result, the English language is used by them not only in the administration of their countries but also in all their institutions of higher learning.
The most important reason for the pre-eminence of the English language, however, is that it is the source of all knowledge. The Industrial Revolution that began in England and spread to other countries revealed the English genius for invention. Even the political and social institutions of England, which were affected tremendously by the Industrial Revolution, have evoked the admiration of all countries. The knowledge, ideas, experiences and profound thoughts of the English people have made a deep impression on the minds of the people of other countries. Innumerable books have been written in the English language on all branches of study, and such is the thirst of English scholars for knowledge and their desire to communicate it, that they have even translated books of great value from other language to English for the benefit of all. Writers of other nationalities too have written a great number of books in English and made a substantial contribution to the enrichment of the English language. As a result of all these efforts, the English language has become the main avenue to the greatest storehouse or information. Therefore, people everywhere have developed a special respect for the language and they continue to learn it with avidity.
As the English language is used so extensively it is mainly in this language that the peoples of the world communicate with and understand one another. No other language has such a wide appeal or popularity. I am therefore of the opinion that it is the English language that has made the greatest contribution to the promotion of the better understanding among the peoples of the world.
- multiplicity (n): vô số
- mutual (adj): qua lại, lẫn nhau
- preach (v): chủ trương, thuyết giáo
- immigrant (n) : người nhập cư
- connexion (n) : mối quan hệ
- discard (v) : vứt bỏ, thải hồi
- administrative (adj) : (thuộc) hành chính
- commercial (adj) : (thuộc) thương mại
- concomitantly (adv) : đi đôi với, đồng thời
- pre-eminence (n) : sưu việt hơn hẳn
- evoke (v): gợi lên
- innumerable (adj) : vô số
- substantial (adj) : lớn lao, đáng kể, quan trọng
- avidity (n) : sự khát khao
- appeal (n) : sự hấp dẫn
Essay 65: Liberty
Since his appearance on the earth, man has instinctively longed for liberty, an ideal which has inspired revolts and revolutions throughout the long history of the human race.
The yearning for liberty or freedom is not restricted to man alone. Even animals, birds and all living creatures love the freedom that God has given to them. Like men, these creatures will never submit to captivity without resistance. Neither will they cease to make tenacious efforts to escape, once they are captured.
In the early days of their existence, men were free to pursue their own affairs, within the limits of their own ability. They moved from place to place in small isolated groups and families, in search of food, which consisted of edible plants. fruits and the flesh of animals. The pursuit of the means of survival was their only occupation, and the things that restricted their freedom of movement, to some extent, were their own fears of the unknown and natural barriers such as mountains, dense forests, and rivers. These were no restraints imposed upon them by human institution and they enjoyed their liberty.
Gradually, men learned to live in communities and various institutions were established, which soon curtailed their liberty to a great extent. Rules were made for the cohesions of each community and obedience to those rules was secured by the threat of punishment. This element of compulsion imposed upon the conduct of the individuals in the community restricted the liberty of the people; but the greater security that men enjoyed in community life provided the incentive to partial sacrifices.
Soon, however, conflicts developed among the various communities. The stronger one conquered the weaker one and in the contest for power and domination, hundreds of people lost their liberty completely. The enslavement and suppression of one group of people by another provided the stimulus for numerous revolts and revolutions for liberty which have not ceased till this day.
Even in the same community. Sometimes, there were divisions. The rulers, who came to be known as kings, with the development of the communities into countries, were at variance with their subjects. To maintain their status and to assert their authority, kings developed their own theories of kingship, and many of them ruled in the most despotic manner. Defiance of the king’s authority was punished by death and imprisonment. What constituted defiance was decided arbitrarily by the king or his ministers, and thousands or people were deprived of their liberty.
Eventually, however, despotism aroused the fury of political thinkers and writers in many countries. A crusade then began against oppression and despotism, and the cry for liberty was heard everywhere. Revolutions erupted; despotic rulers were overthrown, and new rulers were compelled to rule with the consent of the people. The French Revolution of the eighteenth century is the best example of the extremity to which people were prepared to go to retain or regain their liberty, which is claimed to be the birth-right of every man.
But liberty does not mean licence. In other words, men’s liberty of action should not be excessive. The French Revolution is, unfortunately, also the best example of how men may lose their sense of proportion and justice, in their attempts to assert their liberty. In that revolution hundreds of innocent men, women, and children lost their lives at the hands of those who took full advantage of the anarchy that then prevailed in France, to assert their liberty of action. Such actions are indeed licentious .
Thus, it may be argued that liberty will remain the battle-cry of all the people, but those who have it should not use it to hurt or offend others or to deprive others of their liberty.
- liberty (n): sự tự do, quyền tự do
- revolt (n): cuộc nổi dậy, cuộc khởi nghĩa, cuộc nổi loạn
- submit (v): chịu phục tùng, quy phục, ngừng phản kháng
- tenacious (adj): kiên trì, ngoan cường, ngoan cố
- isolated (adj): biệt lập, cô đơn
- restraint (n): sự kiềm chế, sự gò bó, sự ràng buộc
- curtail (v): tước đi, lấy đi
- cohesion (n): sự dính liền, sự cố kết
- compulsion (n): sự ép buộc, sự cưỡng bức
- conquer (v): chinh phục, chế ngự
- enslavement (n): sự nô dịch hoá, tình trạng bị nô dịch
- suppression (n): sự đàn áp hoặc bị đàn áp
- stimulus (n): sự kích thích, tác nhân kích thích
- status (n): đia vị, thân phận, thân thế
- despotic (adj): chuyên chế, chuyên quyền, bạo ngược
- defiance (n): sự công khai kháng cự hoặc không tuân theo
- constitute (v): cấu thành, tạo thành
- arbitrarily (adv): chuyên quyền, độc đoán
- arouse (v): đánh thức, khuâý động, gợi
- crusade (n): chiến dịch; cuộc vận động lớn
- claim (v): khẳng định, quá quyết
- excessive (adj): quá thể, quá đáng
- anarchy (n): tình trạng vô chính phú, tình trạng hỗn loạn
- prevail (v): thắng thế, chiếm ưu thế, phổ biến khắp nơi
- licentious (adj): bừa bãi, phóng túng
- oppress (v): áp bức, đàn áp
Essay 66: Discuss the role of the police force in society
The police force plays a vital role in the maintenance of law and order in society. It is a source of moral strength, confidence and happiness to all individuals who seek to live a good life in society.
The ideal of a police force has been conceived centuries ago, when lawyers acts were committed everywhere; but it was only in the nineteenth century that effectual steps were taken to build up a strong police force in almost every country. Life, before the introduction of the police force, was indeed insecure. Violent acts such as murder were committed with impunity by cruel and reckless men. Even those who were weak and feared revenge by stronger men nevertheless found it safe sometimes to commit lesser crimes such as theft and robbery. Without the restraining influence of a powerful organization such as the police force, the passions of men were aroused easily, and lawlessness prevailed everywhere. Individuals grouped themselves together and terrorized whole villages and towns, and there were wars between rival groups. This state of affairs caused great sorrow and acute anxiety to whole communities and everyone lived in constant fear, uncertain even about his immediate future.
The establishment of the police force, however, has changed the state of affairs in society. The police force has enabled the law courts, which have existed since ancient times, in certain countries even before the introduction of the police force, to function more efficiently. Criminals are apprehended and punished, with the help of the police force, to deter others from committing acts injurious to innocent citizens. Most people therefore have learned to control their criminal tendencies. The alertness of the police force in the detection of crimes has not only discouraged most people from breaking the laws of society but also compelled them to exercise restrain and self-discipline. Consequently, society as a whole is more peaceful than what it was before the establishment of the police force.
As the aim of the police force is to promote the welfare of society, it is constantly engaged in creating the conditions in which people can live and pursue their own affairs without interference from thoughtless individuals. The rights of every member in society are protected by the courts through the agency of the police force, which is therefore a source of inspiration and hope to all law-abiding citizens. Any interference with the rights of one citizen by another is frowned upon by the police force.
In their efforts to promote the welfare of society the police force extends its activities even to the remotest regions of the country. If a man is lost in a dense forest or at sea by his own fault or otherwise, members of the force do their utmost to find and bring him back to his family, however unpleasant the effort may prove. Seldom do they give up their search if they are certain that the man still survives. Dedicated to the service of society, they are prepared to work under any conditions to protect a person, sometimes even at the risk of losing their own lives.
The knowledge of the activities in which the police force is engaged has increased the confidence and moral strength of people in society. Even the cripple and invalid are given every protection. Thus, people today can live in greater security and happiness than they could before. Society therefore owes a great debt of gratitude to the police force.
- vital (adj): sống còn, quan trọng
- seek (v): mưu cầu, theo đuổi
- conceive (v): hình thành 1 ý nghĩ, trong đầu có ý tưởng
- commit (v): phạm lỗi
- impunity (n): sự không bị trừng phạt
- rival (adj ): đối địch, cạnh tranh
- ancient (adj) : xưa, cổ
- apprehend (v) : bắt, tóm, nắm, lấy
- deter (v) : ngăn cản, ngăn chặn, làm nản lòng
- alertness (n): sự tỉnh táo, sự cảnh giác
- discourage (v) : làm nản lòng, làm chán nản
- compel (v) : bắt buộc, thúc ép
- consequently (adv) : do đó, vì vậy, bởi vậy, cho nên
- interference (n) : sự can thiệp, sự xen vào
- law-abiding : trung thành với pháp luật, tuân theo luật pháp
- frown (v) : không bằng lòng, phản đối
- prove (v): tỏ ra, chứng tỏ, chứng minh
- dedicated (adj): tận tụy, tận tâm
- gratitude (n): lòng biết ơn, sự nhớ ơn
Essay 67: Discuss the view that tolerance is essential for peace and harmony in any community or country
The progress of any community or country depends largely on the conduct of the people who reside in it. Discontent, jealousies, prejudices, and intolerance among a few of the people can cause great damage to the whole community or country.
Gregarious by nature, men hate to live in isolation. The urge for association, therefore, enables men to tolerate the views and habits of others, to great extent. Most men have come to realise that the cohesion of society cannot be secured without the exercise of tolerance on the part of its members.
A community or country is composed of various types of people, whose psychological social an temperamental attitudes and needs are not the same. In a great number of cases, there are fundamental differences even in race, language and religion among the people. This is the result of the economic and social necessities of the modern age, which have compelled people to leave their original homes and live among people of foreign descent. These diversities in a community or country necessitate the maintenance of a tolerant attitude on the part of the people towards one another. They have to respect the cultural and social habits and beliefs of one another and refrain themselves from doing, or saying things which might offend the susceptibilities of some people. The racial and religious clashes that have occurred in various parts of the world indicate the damage that the expression of hatred and prejudice can cause in a country. Even differences in the colour of the skin can cause trouble and violence in a community, and when passions are aroused, men lose their reason and sense of proportion and indulge in the most barbaric acts. Innocent lives become the victims of insensate cruelty.
That tolerance is essential for peace and harmony in a country could be illustrated by reference to the people in Malaysia, a country in which people of various races reside. Despite cultural, racial and religious differences among themselves, the people here have lived for generations in peace and harmony. They have also helped one another in various ways at various times. It must be admitted, however, there have been a few incidents from time to time caused by communal differences in certain localities, yet they can hardly be attributed to the general uprising of the races against one another. In fact, the goodwill that prevails among the different races of people here has contributed to the development of a new nation, which has become the envy of many countries. The racial unity among the people is the main factor that has contributed to the progress of the country in all spheres of activity.
Another country that deserves mention is the United States of America. The people of this country too are made up of a diversity of races and cultures. Yet, by tolerance, co-operation and goodwill among the people as a whole, it has become the richest country in the world. All this proves what could be achieved by the people of a community or country who exercise tolerance among themselves.
- tolerance (n): sự khoan dung, lòng khoan dung, sự tha thứ
- conduct (n): hạnh kiểm, tư cách đạo đức
- reside (v): có nhà của mình ở một nơi nhất định, cư trú
- prejudice (n): định kiến, thành kiến
- gregarious (adj): sống thành tập thể
- psychological (adj): thuộc tâm lý
- temperamental (adj): thất thường, hay thay đổi không bình tĩnh
- diversity (n): tính đa dạng
- necessitate (v): đỏi hỏi cần phải có
- refrain (v): kiềm chế làm việc gì, cố nhịn, cố nín
- susceptibility (n): tính nhạy cảm, dễ xúc cảm, tự ái
- clash (n): sự xung đột, sự va chạm
- hatred (n): lòng căm thù, căm hờn, căm ghét
- proportion (n): sự cân xứng, sự cân đối
- indulge (v): ham mê, theo đuổi
- barbaric (adj): dã man, man rợ
- insensate (adi): không cảm xúc, nhẫn tâm, điên rồ
- despite (prep): bất chấp, mặc dù
- communal (adj) (thuộc) các nhóm chủng tộc và tôn giáo đối lập ở 1 vùng
- attribute (v) : cho là do, quy cho
- uprising (n) cuộc nổi dậy, cuộc khởi nghĩa
- contribute (n) : đóng góp, góp phần
- envy (n) : sự thèm muốn, sự ghen tị, sự đố kỵ
- sphere (n) : lĩnh vực, phạm vi ảnh hưởng
Essay 68: Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having too many university graduates in your country
University education confers many benefits on the individual. It develops his intellect and broadens his outlook on life, and enables him to discriminate between the good and the bad. Thus, in the past, only those who sought to acquire these benefits proceeded to the various universities in the world. Today, however, men are usually driven to the universities by economic necessity. Few of them seek the true benefits of education, for the growing competition for positions in the various professions has made it difficult to secure proper employment without some university degrees. As a consequence, there are a large number of university graduates today in almost every country.
The advantages of having too many university graduates in a country, however, are many. In my country, for example, the presence of a large number of graduates would enable the government of my country lo find sufficient men to assume responsible positions in the various administrative departments. It would also raise the status of the country in the eyes of the world, as one with a high literacy rate. The efficiency of the administrative organs of the state would also be increased, and in time of national crises, the government could draw on the intellectual resources of the people. Even the younger generation of men would benefit from the contacts with university graduates. They would draw inspiration from the work of the graduates and themselves develop, consciously or unconsciously, some of the mental abilities of the graduates. In other words, the presence of a large number of university graduates would create an atmosphere conducive to the mental development of the younger people in the country.
The various private firms and industries too would benefit from the presence of large number of university graduates in my country. It would facilitate the selection of suitable men for positions of responsibility in the firms and industries. This would contribute substantially to the progress and productivity of the business concerns. There would, however, also be certain disadvantages in having too many university graduates in my country. The worst of them would be that people without university qualifications would find themselves in a precarious position. Good positions in the various professions would be closed to them. Thus, they would have to be content with humble positions and meagre incomes, Without any prospects of promotion in their respective places of work. Besides, the general drop in salary scales owing to the competition among graduates for position, would further add to the misery of those without university training, for employers would always look for university graduates, even for low positions.
Another disadvantage would be that those without university degrees would be regarded as ignorant and of no consequence. They would receive little respect, unless they were wealthy. Though the university graduates may not deliberately adopt such an attitude towards them, yet they would always remain sensitive to any remarks upon their abilities. Such a situation would produce a group of disgruntle men, and there would be much unemployment among those without university education, thus giving rise to many problems in the country.
- confer (v): trao hoặc tặng
- intellect (n): khả năng hiểu biết, trí tuệ, trí năng
- discriminate (v): phân biệt
- consequence (n): hậu quả, kết quả
- sufficient (adj) : đủ
- assume (v) : nắm lấy, chiếm lấy
- literacy (n) : sự biết viết, biết đọc
- efficiency (adj): hiệu quả, năng lực, khả năng
- conducive (adj): có ích, có lợi
- facilitate (v) : làm cho dễ dàng, làm cho thuận tiện
- substantially (adv): về thực chất, căn bản
- precarious (adj) : tạm thời, nhất thời, không ổn định
- humble (adj) : thấp kém, hèn mọn
- meagre (adj) : nghèo nàn, xoàng, đạm bạc
- scale (n) : quy mô, phạm vi
- owing to (prep): do vì, bởi vì
- deliberately (adv): một cách tính toán, có chủ tâm
- adopt (v): chấp nhận, thông qua
- disgruntled (adj): bực tức
Essay 69: War and peace
Since the time men learned to live in communities, in the remote past, wars have been fought at regular intervals in various parts of the world. In fact, the history of the human race is mainly a record of the battles and wars fought in the past between communities and nations.
Wars are caused mainly by human greed and ambition. In the early days of men’s existence, many communities lived a very hard life, owing perhaps to the lack of geographical advantages or intellectual ability. As a result, the prosperity of other communities aroused their greed and envy, and wars between communities became inevitable. One side fought to conquer the prosperous communities in order to gain control of the means of prosperity, and the other side fought to defend its independence and way of life. With the passage of time, the communities developed into nations, and wars were fought on a bigger scale; but the basic causes of war remained the same. It was only occasionally that battles were fought with other aims such as the capture of a woman to satisfy the sexual of a conqueror or ruler.
However, success in wars stirred the ambition of many nations. Wars were then fought for domination and extension of power. Several small nations soon came under the dominion of a powerful country, which then developed into an Empire. The Roman Empire, for example, was created mainly by conquest. Even the personal ambitions of some individuals have been the cause of wars at times. The ambitions of Napoleon and Hitler for world conquest caused many battles, in which millions of people, young and old, gave their lives.
The devastation caused by wars, however, has always aroused the conscience of several nations, and attempts have been made by such nations to prevent wars in the future. Their leaders have met at various times, in the course of history, to discuss peace and to find a way of removing the causes of war. It is this urge that led to the creation of the United Nations, after the failure of the League of Nations, which today is doing its utmost to maintain peace between nations.
But the desire peace has instead led to further wars, for peace often demands the destruction of the ambitions of those who begin wars. The wars begun by Napoleon and Hitler could be ended only by fighting further wars to destroy these men, who have been responsible for the greatest sufferings in the history of the world. Human ambition, however, is indifferent to the lessons of history. In times of wars, men seek peace; but when there is peace, there are attempts to begin wars. Once a war is begun, however, those responsible for it are crushed in the end. Yet ambitious countries and individuals are still trying to extend their power. but they are being opposed by those who love peace. Thus, wars will continue to exist, while at the same time attempts will be made to attain peace in the world.
- at regular intervals (n): đều đặn
- greed (n): tính tham lam
- prosperity (n): sự thịnh vượng
- conquer (v): chinh phục, xâm chiếm
- defend (v): bảo vệ
- lust (n): sự thèm khát, lòng tham
- stir (v): kích thích, khích động, xúi giục
- domination (n): sự thống trị
- dominion (n): quyền thống trị, quyền chi phối
- devastation (n): sự tàn phá, sự phá hủy
- conscience (n): lương tâm
- 12 . failure (n): sự thất bại, cố gắng không thành công
- League of Nations (n): Hội Quốc Liên
- destruction (n): sự phá hủy, sự tiêu diệt
- crush (v): tiêu diệt địch, dẹp tan, làm tiêu tan
- oppose (v): chống đối, phản đối
- attain (v): đạt được, giành được
Essay 70: Courage
Courage, like all human qualities, is an abstract thing; but it is this quality in man that has enabled him to advance against all natural obstacles through the centuries. Endowed with intelligence and manual skills man’s courage, even in the early days of his existence, enabled him to accept the challenges of nature. He not only lived in the midst of wild animals but also began to domesticate many of them for his own advantage. Soon, even the most ferocious and largest of animals learnt to respect his courage. They began to avoid him as far as they could.
Indeed, without courage man would never be able to advance from the primitive stage. He would never try to reach the skies or explore the depths of the oceans; but impelled by courage, he left his immediate confines to defy nature, and soon made the world more hospitable and secure for himself. It is this irrespressible energy of man, aided by his courage, that has contributed to the comfort and happiness that people everywhere enjoy today.
Courage is therefore indispensable to almost all human activities. Men need courage to face their enemies and the uncertainties of life. They need courage to operate machinery, to fly aeroplanes, to construct tall buildings. In fact, they need courage to meet all the dangers that constantly threaten them in all their pursuits. Even to accept the responsibilities of a family requires extreme courage.
Human courage and valour have been displayed most strikingly in all the battles that have been fought in the history of mankind. Men have fought against men with deadly weapons to protect themselves their countries, families and home. For the protection and comfort of their families, men have also faced other dangers. They have defied dangerous currents in rivers to bring food for their families by boats and rafts. They have also defied storm and battled the waves of the oceans to extract food from them.
Courage, however, does not assert itself always. The instinct of self- preservation usually impels men to seek safety in fight or concealment whenever there is a threat to personal security. It is in moments of desperation that courage asserts itself and enables one to meet all threats; and it is in such moments that men also discover their own physical strength, and other advantages of resistance. For instance, a man who is attacked by an animal will fiercely in an effort to avert tragedy to himself, and in the process discover his own strength and the advantages of using certain weapons to overpower his adversary.
Feelings of loyalty and devotion too have often aroused the courage of amen. A person who is devoted to his family fights tooth and nail to protect his family from destruction or extinction, whatever the consequences to himself. Similarly, a loyal servant may give his life for the protection of his master.
Thus, courage is the most important quality in man. He needs it for his own advancement and to meet all the challenges of his existence.
- obstacle (n): sự cản trở, trở ngại, chướng ngại vật
- endow (v): phú cho, ban cho
- manual (adj): thủ công
- challenge (n): sự thách thức
- ferocious(adj): dữ tợn, hung ác, dã man, tàn bạo
- hospitable (adj): mến khách, hiếu khách
- irrepressible (adj): không thể kìm nén được
- indispensable (adj): tuyệt đối không thể thiếu được
- strikingly (adv): nổi bật, đáng chú ý
- assert oneself (v): khẳng định, quả quyết
- self-preservation (n): sự thúc bách tự nhiên để sinh tồn
- desperation (n): sự tuyệt vọng
- fiercely (adv): dữ dội, mãnh liệt
- overpower (v): áp đảo, chế ngự, khuất phục
- adversary (n): kẻ địch, kẻ thù, đối phương
- devotion (n): sự tận tụy, sự thành tâm, sự hiến dâng
Essay 71: Do you think that literary education is preferable to scientific education today?
A literary education has always been regarded as indispensable to the development of character and a broad outlook on life. Whether such an education is preferable to a scientific education is, however, a moot question.
Before the advent of the Scientific Age most scholars pursued a literary education which conferred many benefits on them. It not only gave them an insight into the affairs of the world but also equipped them with a vocabulary that enabled them to express their views and feelings with cogency and facility. Besides, it developed their mental ability and intellectual powers, and many of the achieved distinction in public life as forcible speakers and writers or even as lawyers and political thinkers. Having discovered the benefits of such an education, ambitious men in all countries proceeded to the universities or other institutions of learning to acquire the advantages of a literary education, and this tendency is discernible even today, though a scientific education is being considered more advantageous to the needs of the present day.
The inventions of the modern age have indeed revolutionised society. Numerous goods are being produced, with rapidity unknown before in various parts of the earth with the aid of science and scientists of all countries are continuing to exert their brains to extend the realms of science. Every invention has helped to increase the leisure and convenience of men everywhere, and the demand for goods is increasing everyday. As a consequence, more and more machines are being invented to increase the production of goods within the shortest time possible.
Every mechanical invention, however, has to be operated by skilled men. The larger the machine the more complicated its operation, and any mechanical faults in it can be detected only by men with a scientific education, who are but few in number compared with those with a literary education. It is this scarcity of men with a scientific education that has led to the assumption that a scientific education today is preferable to a literary education. The large factories require men to operate machinery, dealers in motor-vehicles require men for all types of work in the industry, and there are a diversity of other industries which are looking for men with a scientific education. The demand for men with a scientific education is, therefore, great, and this serves as an incentive to young men to acquire industrial and technical skills, for the possession of such skills will not only enable them to secure remunerative occupations but also enable them to manage their own factories or workshops in the future to increase their earnings.
All this, however, does not imply that the man with a literary education is losing his importance rapidly. In truth, he is an indispensable person even today in various departments of human activity. He provides the managerial skill in an industry, contributes his literary abilities to the promotion of literacy in the country, provides ministerial and judicial services in the state, and performs a host of other functions.
Thus, it is not possible to say with finality that a certain type of education is preferable to another. It is for the individual to make the best of the type of education that he has received.
- indispensable (adj): rất cần, không thể thiếu
- moot (adj): có thể bàn luận
- equip (v): trang bị
- cogency (n): sự vững chắc, sức thuyết phục
- distinction (n) sự ưu tú, sự xuất chúng, sự lỗi lạc
- forcible (adj): sinh động, có sức thuyết phục
- discernible (adj): có thể nhận thức được, có thể thấy rõ
- exert (v): đưa vào sử dụng, áp dụng
- realm (n): lĩnh vực
- complicated (adj): phức tạp, rắc rối
- scarcity (n): sự khan hiếm, sự khó tìm
- diversity (n): sự đa dạng
- incentive (n): sự khuyến khích; sự khích lệ, động viên
- remunerative (adj): được trả hậu, có lợi
- imply (v): hàm ý, ngụ ý
- ministerial (adj): thuộc bộ trưởng
- judicial (adj): thuộc hoặc bởi một toà án